February 28, 2022

The Rise of ARM-Based Chips in Laptops: Revolution


The computing industry is witnessing a transformative shift with the integration of ARM-based chips in laptops. Traditionally confined to mobile devices due to their power efficiency and compact design, ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) processors are now making significant inroads into the laptop market. This transition is driven by the need for enhanced performance, better energy efficiency, and seamless integration between hardware and software.

Apple’s Bold Move

The significant shift towards ARM-based chips in laptops was spearheaded by Apple. In June 2020, Apple announced its transition from Intel x86 processors to its custom-designed ARM-based chips, known as Apple Silicon. This move was a strategic decision aimed at achieving greater control over the hardware and software ecosystem. The first chip, the M1, launched in November 2020, marked a new era in personal computing.

The M1 chip, built on a 5-nanometer process, boasts impressive specifications with 16 billion transistors, an integrated GPU, and a unified memory architecture. This design allows for faster processing, lower power consumption, and longer battery life. The M1-powered MacBook Air and MacBook Pro have received widespread acclaim for their performance, efficiency, and the seamless user experience they offer. This was very evident

Competitors Enter the Arena

Apple’s success with the M1 chip has catalysed interest and development in ARM-based laptops from other major tech companies. The competitive landscape is rapidly evolving with several notable players entering the market.

  1. Qualcomm: Qualcomm, renowned for its Snapdragon processors in smartphones, is venturing into the laptop market with its Snapdragon Compute platforms. These chips are designed to offer always-on connectivity, robust performance, and extended battery life, making them ideal for lightweight laptops and 2-in-1 devices.
  2. Microsoft: Microsoft has also embraced ARM architecture with its Surface Pro X, powered by the Microsoft SQ1 and SQ2 chips, co-developed with Qualcomm. These devices showcase the potential of ARM-based Windows laptops, emphasizing portability, connectivity, and enhanced battery life.
  3. Samsung: Samsung is leveraging its expertise in mobile computing to develop high-performance ARM-based chips for laptops. The company’s Exynos processors are expected to bring competitive performance and efficiency to the laptop market.
  4. NVIDIA: NVIDIA’s acquisition of ARM Holdings has sparked speculation about the future of ARM-based processors in personal computing. NVIDIA’s expertise in graphics and AI processing could lead to innovative ARM-based solutions for high-performance laptops.

Why ARM-Based Chips Are Better

The shift to ARM-based chips in laptops offers several compelling advantages:

  1. Power Efficiency: ARM processors are designed with power efficiency in mind, leading to longer battery life without compromising performance. This is particularly beneficial for portable devices like laptops.
  2. Performance: ARM-based chips, such as Apple’s M1, have demonstrated impressive performance metrics, often surpassing traditional x86 processors in various benchmarks.
  3. Integration: ARM architecture allows for better integration between hardware and software, optimizing the overall user experience. Apple’s control over both the chip design and operating system exemplifies this advantage.
  4. Thermal Management: ARM processors generate less heat compared to their x86 counterparts, enabling fanless designs and quieter operation in laptops.

RISC vs. CISC: An Analogy

To understand why ARM-based (RISC) chips offer these advantages, it is helpful to compare RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) with CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) using an analogy.

Imagine two chefs in a kitchen:

  • CISC Chef: This chef has a vast array of complex recipes. Each recipe is detailed and involves multiple steps, some of which are quite intricate. While this allows the chef to cook a variety of dishes, the complexity of each recipe means that cooking each dish takes a lot of time and effort. This is akin to CISC architecture, where each instruction can perform multiple tasks, leading to complexity and higher power consumption.
  • RISC Chef: This chef, on the other hand, focuses on a smaller set of simple, straightforward recipes. Each recipe involves few steps and can be executed quickly and efficiently. By mastering these simple recipes, the chef can cook meals faster and with less effort. This is similar to RISC architecture, where each instruction is simple and can be executed rapidly, resulting in higher efficiency and lower power consumption.

Challenges and Future Prospects

While the transition to ARM-based laptops is promising, it is not without challenges. Compatibility with existing software, particularly legacy applications designed for x86 architecture, remains a hurdle. However, companies are addressing this through software emulation and encouraging developers to create native ARM applications.

The future of ARM-based laptops looks bright as technology continues to evolve. With ongoing advancements in chip design, manufacturing processes, and software optimization, ARM processors are poised to play a significant role in the next generation of personal computing.


The integration of ARM-based chips in laptops represents a significant milestone in the evolution of personal computing. Pioneered by Apple and followed by other industry leaders, ARM architecture offers a blend of power efficiency, performance, and seamless integration. By understanding the fundamental differences between RISC and CISC architectures, it becomes clear why ARM-based chips are setting new standards in the computing world. As the technology matures, ARM-based laptops are set to redefine the standards of portability, efficiency, and user experience in the computing world.